Journal of Organization & Business
Journal of Organization & Business (JOB) is an international peer-reviewed scientific journal, launched under the umbrella of the Center for Knowledge Corridor (CKC) Publishing Ltd. It covers a wide range of disciplines related to the world of organizations and business, such as Business and Organizational Studies, Management, Human Resource Management, Marketing, Finance, Accounting, Entrepreneurship, etc. Nevertheless, the scope of the Journal is not merely limited to these facets of organizations and business, as the authors are at liberty to contribute their distinct, genuine and valuable academic papers of the related fields in the Journal. Hence, the aim of the Journal is to provide writers, researchers, academicians and students from all over the world with a platform which they can progressively utilize not only to get their research papers published, but also to facilitate the academic exchange between them. At JOB, we do not charge any publication fee for the research papers. We also provide a free online access, to our journal, for all the readers. By doing this, we aspire to enhance the knowledge base of the research and scholarly world. This also shows our commitment to distribute and making our journal as widely available as possible to the interested lots, irrespective of their geographical locations. Quality and credibility are the two important attributes of our journal, and so we cannot compromise upon them. In this regard, the submitted empirical and theoretical research papers, literature reviews, and case studies to our journal will be thoroughly verified for their substance and originality. However, the views expressed in the published work of authors at JOB should not be considered as the views of our editorial team and publisher.
Subject Areas: Accounting, Banking and Finance, Islamic Banking, Economics, Marketing, Behavioral Economics, Business Strategy, Decision Analysis, Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Information Systems, Decision Making, Operations Management, Organizational Behavior, Stochastic Models and Simulation, Information Systems, Human Resource Management, Supply Chain Management..
Mark Learmonth, Durham University UK
Umer Zaman, Ph.D, Endicott College of International Studies
Woosong university Jayang-Dong, Dong-gu Daejeon, South Korea
Assco. Prof. Dr Faizuniah Pangil, Universiti Utara Malaysia
Imtiaz Arif, Ph.D, IQRA University Karachi
Abdul Hameed Pitafi, Ph.D Hefei University of Technology China
Zaki Muhammad Rashidi, Ph.D, IQRA University Karachi
Professor Dr. Usman Mustafa, PIDE Islamabad
Dr. Waheed Umrani, IBA Sukhar
Dr. Asad Afzal Humayon, COMSATS Islamabad
Dr. Abdul Wahab, FAST Islamabad
Author GuidelinesWill be available soon
Authors of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the paper. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable.
Data Access and Retention
Authors are asked to provide the raw data in connection with a paper for editorial review, if practicable, and should in any event be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable time after publication.
Originality and Plagiarism
The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others that this has been appropriately cited or quoted.
Acknowledgement of Sources
Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. Authors should cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work.
Authorship of the Paper
Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be acknowledged or listed as contributors. The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included on the paper, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.
Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest
All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed.
Fundamental errors in published works
When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author s obligation to promptly notify the journal editor and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper.
Journal of Organization & Business (JOB) publishes original research papers with the understanding that these papers are not being considered for publishing elsewhere. Submission are accepted throughout the year with an average review time of 3 months. All submissions in Microsoft Word format should be sent electronically via email to:
All submissions are subject to double blind peer review and should follow the Journal of Organization & Business (JOB) format. All tables and figures should be numbered and inserted in text of the paper in black and white (no colored figures).
Language: All manuscripts should be in English language (US English). Research papers should be thoroughly checked by the author(s) to avoid grammatical, typographical and syntax errors. Scholarly language and subject related terminology should be used as the readers of Journal of Organization & Business (JOB) belong to scholarly audience. Authors should focus on content, style, integration of ideas, higher order thinking skill of analysis and novel arguments.
Length of paper: 8,000-10,000 words including tables and references.
Title page: It should include concise, specific, relevant and informative title (avoid abbreviations in the title). Please indicate the full name of author(s) clearly. Present the authors affiliation below the names. Provide the full address of each affiliation, including the country name, correct e-mail address, and telephone number of each author. Please clearly indicate who (corresponding author) is willing to handle correspondence at all stages of peer review and publication.
Short running title: A short running title of not more than 50 characters should be provided.
General rules for text: Please use the following rules for whole text, including abstract, keywords, heading and references.
Font: Times New Roman; Size: 10
Paragraph Spacing: Above paragraph – 0 pt; Below paragraph – 4 pt
Line Spacing: fixed – 12 pt
Heading 1: Times New Roman; Size-10; Bold; for example, 3. Methodology
Heading 2: Times New Roman; Size-10; Italic; for example, 3.1 Population
Heading 3: Times New Roman; Size-10; for example, 3.1.1 Sample
Abstract: A concise and factual abstract is required (maximum length 200 words). The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, data set, methodology, results, major conclusions and usefulness of the study.
Keywords: Immediately after the abstract, provide 6-8 keywords specific to the research paper. Avoid general and plural terms: only firmly established terms and abbreviations should be used.
Introduction: This section may cover overall background and description of the study, narrow down to research objectives, motivation of the topic, importance/significance, proposed tasks and novelty. Abbreviations should be described in parentheses when first time they appear in the text.
Literature review: This sections may critically describe/evaluate literature relevant to research problem, establish context, compare and contrast the most recent developments in literature and trends. Search gaps after concentrating on thought leaders’ seminal work and linking the research with relevant theories.
Methodology: This section may describe population structure, sample, instrumentation, data collection, hypotheses, equations, statistical tool and its justification.
Data analysis: This section may cover in depth interpretation through applying higher order thinking skill of analysis and develop novel arguments based on significance of statistical relations. Establish interconnections among and within variables. Testing hypotheses and comparing with literature.
Discussion and recommendations: It may be broken into meaningful sections, i.e. hypotheses supported/rejected, alternative explanations, conclusion, theoretical/methodological contribution, practical implications, recommendations, future study directions and limitations.
Subdivision of the article: Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1., 2., (then 1.1, 1.1.1, 1.1.2), 1.2, etc. Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to the text. Authors are urged to write as concisely as possible, but not at the cost of clarity.
Figure legends, figures, schemes: Present them in order (suitable heading and specific number; Arabic numerals) wherever appropriate in the text. High-resolution (black and white only) graphs must be provided in the main text of the paper.
Tables: Present tables with suitable heading and specific number (Arabic numerals) at the appropriate place of the article. Use the Table option of Microsoft Word to create tables. Ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Refer to table number wherever appropriate in the text of the paper.
Equation/Formula: Present equations using Microsoft Equation Editor. Numbers (Arabic numerals) to each equation should be placed in parenthesis at the right margin.
References: Citations in the text should follow the referencing style used by the American Psychological Association (APA). You may refer the “Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association”, its details may be found at: www.apa.org . References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically.
Reference to a journal publication: Core, J. E., Holthausen, R. W., & Larcker, D. F. (1999). Corporate governance, chief executive officer compensation, and firm performance. Journal of Financial Economics, 51(3), 371-406.
Reference to a book: Jesudason, J. V. (1989). Ethnicity and the economy: The state, Chinese business, and multinationals in Malaysia. Oxford University Press, USA.
Reference to a web source: World Bank (2009). Outlook for Remittance Flows 2009-2011. [Online] Available: http://econ.worldbank.org (March 2, 2016).
Chapters in edited volumes: Herath, H. S., Bremser, W. G., & Birnberg, J. G. (2014). A Balanced Scorecard Strategic Initiative Planning Model with Resource Constraints. Advances in Management Accounting (Advances in Management Accounting, Volume 24) Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 24, 1-38.
Unpublished papers: Wheaton, W. C., Chervachidze, S. & Nechayev, G. (2014). Error Correction Models of MSA Housing Supply Elasticities: Implications for Price Recovery. MIT Department of Economics, Working Paper No. 14-05.
Conference proceedings: Heiman, A. L., Vincent-Hoper, S., Gregersen, S., & Nienhaus, A. (2014). A meta-analysis on transformational leadership and well-being: The role of the job demands–resources model. Paper presented at the International Conference of Applied Psychology, Paris, France.
Thesis: Mole, G.W. (2002). Managers in conflict: a longitudinal study of manager behaviour in interpersonal conflicts at work. Unpublished PhD. Thesis, University of London, UK.
Abbreviation of Journal Names: Please avoid using abbreviations in the title of a paper. Rather full names of journals should be described in the references to facilitate readers and indexing agencies.
Footnote: Footnotes should be avoided while references preferably be prepared using some bibliography package.
JEL Classification: Please provide up to 5 JEL classification codes after abstract of the paper that may be accessed at: https://www.aeaweb.org/econlit/jelCodes.php?view=jel
Acknowledgement: All acknowledgements should be described at the end of the paper in a separate paragraph after having specific permission from individuals and institutions to mention their names. Authors should also declare and acknowledge any sources of research funding in this section.
Appendix: Background information, list of respondents, list of companies or questionnaire may be described in this section.
Authorship of the Work
- Authorship of the work may only be credited to those who have made a noteworthy contribution in conceptualization, design, conducting, data analysis and writing up of the manuscript.
- It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to include name of only those co-authors who have made significant contributions to the work.
- The corresponding author should ensure that all co- authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.
Others who have participated in certain substantive aspect of the research should be acknowledged for their contribution in an “Acknowledgement” section.
Conflicts of Interest
- The potential and relevant competing financial, personal social or other interest of all author(s) that might be affected by publication of the results contained in the manuscript must be disclosed and conveyed to the editor.
- Author(s) should disclose any potential conflict of interest at the earliest possible stage, including but not limited to employment, consultancies, honoraria, patent applications/registrations, grants or other funding.
- All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed alongside a brief overview of the role played, if any by the responses during the various stages of research.
Peer Review Process
Being an HEC recognized/accredited journal, Journal of Organization & Business (JOB) follows peer review guidelines of HEC in true letter and spirit to meet the requirements of recognition/accreditation and annual funding. All papers submitted to Journal of Organization & Business (JOB) undergo a rigorous internal and external review by experts in the relevant area of interest. Journal of Organization & Business (JOB) attempts to maintain an average review time of 3 months.
Resubmission of Paper (after peer review)
Nearly every published paper goes through at least one revision. Authors should take a revision request as good news and opportunity to learn and improve the quality of their research paper. They are directed to revise the paper carefully in accordance with the reviewers’ suggestions to avoid the needless interruption in review process. Generally, review report is provided in columnar form. Last column of the review report is Authors’ action/response. This column is to be filled by the author(s) in detail, the way each review point is incorporated in the revised version of the paper (This is a compulsory part of review process). Revised paper along with reply/response to review report should be submitted within two months. Author(s) should be very careful regarding accuracy and completeness in accordance with the reviewers’ suggested points, so as to avoid further review and delay (further revision can be recommended, if editors find that reviewers’ suggestions have not been incorporated satisfactorily).
Keeping in view the other academic/professional commitments, authors can request for extra time, if they feel that revision needs more efforts and time to improve the quality of paper.
Publication Ethics (for authors)
As Journal of Organization & Business (JOB) is an HEC recognized/accredited and funded journal, that’s why it is obligatory for authors to read, understand and follow these ethical guidelines http://www.hec.gov.pk/english/services/faculty/SSAH/Documents/JCR/HEC%20Approved%20Ethical%20Guidelines.pdf). These include fraudulent authorship, originality of material, privacy of participants, conflict of interest, falsification of data, plagiarism and fabrication of results.
In accordance with the guidelines of Higher Education Commission (HEC), Journal of Organization & Business (JOB) observes Zero Tolerance to plagiarism (http://www.hec.gov.pk/english/services/faculty/Documents/Plagiarism/Plagiarism%20Policy.pdf). Journal of Organization & Business (JOB) uses either Turnitin or iThenticate for all research papers submitted to detect possible plagiarism. If similarity is more than 18%, the paper is returned to the author(s) immediately. PJCSS follows HEC and COPE guidelines to make the determination whether (or to what extent) plagiarism exists.
If plagiarism or other unethical practices are detected after publishing the paper, editorial board has the authority to correct or retract the paper as HEC’s plagiarism policy (http://www.hec.gov.pk/english/services/faculty/Plagiarism/Pages/default.aspx). All authors are responsible for their content individually and collectively. In extreme cases, Editorial board may decide to consult the institution of author(s).
Self-plagiarism: verbatim or substantial copying of authors’ own published work (or under consideration for publication at some other outlet) effecting originality of current submission is also no acceptable in any way.
The names and addresses (email and surface) available to Journal of Organization & Business (JOB) would not be used except for the stated purposes of the journal and would not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.
Editorial board of Journal of Organization & Business (JOB) is committed to provide quality editorial services to its contributors and believes in building and maintaining trust and respect to all contributors, readers and practitioners. Journal of Organization & Business (JOB) believes to improve its services by responding appeals and rectifying its mistakes against:
a) Objection to publications causing harm to any party
b) Infringing ethical boundaries in any manner and
c) Rejection of research paper
Authors/readers can submit their appeal directly to the chief editor at: email@example.com. The appeal must provide detail justification (harm, ethical issues or response to editor/reviewer comments). The chief editor would look after the matter independently and forward it to some appropriate Journal of Organization & Business (JOB) editorial board member. Finally, the board member after going through whole the complaint/justification can recommend further review, acceptance of appeal or uphold the original decision (if any).
Copyrights and Open Access Policy
Copyrights of all research papers published in Journal of Organization & Business (JOB) are held by the Johar Education Society, Pakistan (ckc)publishing ltd. However, as the Journal of Organization & Business (JOB) follows Budapest Open Access Initiative for global exchange of knowledge, readers are freely allowed to download, read and print the full text papers of Journal of Organization & Business (JOB) without prior permission from the CKC(publishing) or the author as long as they acknowledge/cite the Journal of Organization & Business (JOB) as original source.
Research papers submitted to Journal of Organization & Business (JOB) should be original and should not be under consideration to some other publisher at the same time. Authors warrant that they are the sole owner of their research work and their submission is not an infringement of any copyright, trade secret or other proprietary rights and will indemnify the society of any breach of such warranty.
CKC(Publishing) Ltd makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all information contained in its publications. However, CKC(Publishing) makes no warranties as to the accuracy and completeness of the Content. In this way, CKC(Publishing) shall not be liable for any losses or claims arising due to the use of the Content. Further, it is the editorial policy of Journal of Organization & Business (JOB) to accommodate broad diversity of viewpoints on various issues in commerce and cognate disciplines. Any opinions and views expressed in research papers are of the author(s) and cannot be considered of the CKC(Publishing).
Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences